SPATIALLY DETERMINED RISKS FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Keywords:human development, space for human development, spatial determinants of human development, risk, spatially determined risk for human development
The purpose of this article is to study the spatial determinants of human development and the content of the concept of spatially determined risk for human development. The s cientifi c novelty of research is to determine the objects, subjects, results of spatial deterministic risk of human development. For the fi rst time, the essence of the defi nition of a spatially determined risk to human development is proposed and revealed. This further allows us to form a theoretical and methodological basis for assessing the risks involved. The article explores the territorial and spatial features of the process of human development by studying the factors that shape and determine it, basing on the author‘s concept of the “space for human development”. It is determined that the spatial determinants of human development include four groups of factors, which are the features of physical space, economic and social environment, conditions of daily life of the population. The distinctive spatial determinants carry both the opportunities for human development and the threats. Under certain conditions, they are transformed into human development risks and anti-risks as factors of the resilience and counteraction to risks. Generalizing the threats for human development, four classes of threats are identifi ed. They include: inequality (income inequality, the unequal access to benefi ts, education, housing, etc.); uneven placement (hyper urbanization, hyper polarization, the uneven placement of infrastructure or recreational areas, etc); remoteness; inaccessibility. Separate territories can theoretically suff er from all of the above threats. Also, basing on the individual spatial characteristics of the respective territories and the presence of vulnerable populations, such threats may be leveled or amplifi ed. This will reduce or increase the probability of human development risks. The author distinguishes the main classes of risks for human development, which are: social exclusion, health risks, life risks. The author formulates own defi nition of a spatially determined risk for human development as an objectively existing probability of the social exclusion, violation of health of a certain severity or deprivation of life for the population of a certain territory (or certain individuals), which is connected with the action of spatially localized threats caused by income inequality and unequal access to social benefi ts, uneven accommodation, remoteness and diffi cult access to places of residence, work, infrastructure, including social and transport.
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