DEMOGRAPHIC AGING IN THE CAPITAL OF UKRAINE, ITS FEATURES AND MODERN CHALLENGES
Keywords:demographic aging in the capital cities, mean age, index of ageing, prospective age, aging by prospective age, prospective old-age dependency ratio, consequences and challenges of demographic aging, policy for adaptation of the big city to demographic aging
The purpose of this work is to conduct in-depth comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of demographic aging in the city of Kyiv, to identify its distinctive features and the specifics of the issues caused by this process. Demographic aging in the capital is analyzed in a comparative context - against the background of the urban population of the country (excluding the population of Kyiv) and in comparison with the urban population of the adjacent Kyiv region. Demographic aging is investigated with such methods of estimation which haven’t been used in studies of these territorial objects yet. As it’s shown by traditional indicators of aging, the population of Kyiv is estimated now to be younger than the urban population of Ukraine (without Kyiv), but somewhat older than the urban population of the Kyiv region. Over the past five years, the aging process has accelerated in the capital and the surrounding region. Also the proportion of the oldest among the elderly has increased. Abovementioned were caused by both some improvement in the survival and the influence of the “demographic wave”. Due to the survival advantages in Kyiv, the prospective age for its population is higher. So the indicator of aging by prospective age and prospective old age dependency ratio show that the population of Kyiv is younger than the urban population of the country (excluding Kyiv) as well as the population of Kyiv region. The capital has relatively better demoeconomic conditions for social-economic development and for the potential support of elderly by the active population. The demographic aging in the city will progress rapidly in the future. This inference made using the model of the stable population and calculations on the medium-term demographic forecast for Kyiv. Capital city due to its specific role and functions is stated to have increased needs for the development of medical care (especially highly specialized) and various social services adressed to the elderly. Author identifies the specific risks for the elderly in the big city due to the COVID-19 epidemic and the corresponding challenges for the health and social care system. Also paper deals with the imperatives for restructuring the urban space to achieve sanitation norms, ensure the availability of everyday infrastructure for people of all ages and generally comfortable living conditions for elderly in big city.
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