FORMATION OF INSTITUTIONAL GENDER EQUALITY PROVISION IN WAGES IN UKRAINE
Keywords:wage, work of equal value, equal remuneration, gender policy, gender equality, gender gap, institutional support, evaluation methods
Further socialization of the labor market of Ukraine requires the intensification of social and labor inclusion, which reflects the process of increasing the participation of women in socially useful activities by creating conditions for the realization of their labor potential, including by ensuring equal pay for work of equal value, which determined the purpose of this publication: the formation of proposals for institutional support for equal pay for work in Ukraine based on the analysis of the gender pay gap and taking into account the progressive foreign experience of institutional support for gender equality in wages. The methodological basis are the fundamental provisions of modern economic theory in the context of finding a model for ensuring gender equality in the labor market, the institutional provision of equal pay for work of equal value; scientific achievements of foreign and domestic scientists in the direction of effective use of women’s labor potential, ensuring decent work for all. To achieve this goal, the following general and specific methods are used: the method of theoretical generalization, logical analysis in the process of studying the gender gap; systemic method to determine the approach to ensuring gender equality in remuneration with the improvement of gender policy in Ukraine; comparative analysis, synthesis and generalization, in terms of research of methodological approaches to labor evaluation from the standpoint of gender equality; methods of statistical analysis to assess the gender gap, including in wages. As a result, the institutional provision of gender equality in remuneration in Ukraine, which meets the norms of the ILO Convention No. 100 “On Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value,” is further developed, with an analysis of methodological approaches to discrimination in remuneration and justification for regulatory improvement of provision of gender equality in remuneration. The study identifies Ukraine’s weak position, which increases the number of years to bridge the gender gap, which creates a number of negative consequences for Ukraine’s economy, including loss of GDP, reduced levels of savings and purchasing power. Implementation of the principles of the ILO Convention No. 100 “On Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value” in Ukraine leads to the improvement of legal framework and the formation of a comprehensive system of social institutions to reduce the gender pay gap. Based on the study of foreign experience, approaches and methods of labor evaluation from the standpoint of gender equality that can be applied in Ukraine are presented. Recommendations are given for the formation of institutional support for gender equality in pay in Ukraine, which include the detection of discrimination in pay based on the introduction of forms of reporting, inspections, appeals of employees; determination of methodology and methods of assessment of equal pay for work of equal value; creation of special authorities, institutes that will deal with this issue, or expansion of the functions of existing ones; determination of the system of sanctions for employers who violate the legislation of Ukraine in terms of equal pay; coordination of regulatory and legal support regarding the definition of the categorical apparatus and the mechanism of observance of the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal value; conducting an information campaign on the protection of the rights to equal pay for work of equal value, etc.
- Global Gender Gap Report 2021. Insight report (2021). World economic forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2021.pdf
- Global Gender Gap Report 2020. Insight report (2020). World economic forum. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2020.pdf
- Convention ILO On Equal Remuneration for Men and Women Workers for Work of Equal Value from June 29 1951, № 100. (1951). https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/993_002#Text [in Ukrainian].
- Gerasymenko, G. V. (2005). Gender issues in the labor market of Ukraine. Demography and Social Economy, 1, 178-185 [in Ukrainian].
- Kostjuchenko, T. (2019). Labor market gender. Comparison of cases of Ukraine and Lithuania. NGO “Ukrainian Center for European Policy” [in Ukrainian].
- Libanova, E., & Makarova, O. (1998). Women’s access to the labor market: the current situation and opportunities for expansion. “Women in the labor market of Ukraine”, Proceedings of the national tripartite conference. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
- Lopushnjak, G. (2019). Gender differentiation of wages in Ukraine. Social and labor relations: theory and practice, 9, 1-13 [in Ukrainian].
- Galustjan, Ju., Gerasymenko, G., & Makarova, O. (2011). Gender statistics of Ukraine: current status, problems, areas for improvement. Zaporizhzhia: The printing world [in Ukrainian].
- Rudik, O. (2013). Addressing the gender pay gap: EU experience. Public administration: theory and practice, 2. http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Patp_2013_2_2 [in Ukrainian].
- Skoryk, M. (2017). Gender discrimination in access to work and services: assessment of Ukraine’s implementation of EU Council anti-discrimination directives. Kyiv, Bureau of Social and Political Development [in Ukrainian].
- Fedkovych, G., Pocjurko, R., Trohym, I., & Chumalo, M. (2006). Gender and age discrimination in the labor market in Ukraine: comparative analysis of legislation, research and monitoring, experience of civic representation. Lviv: Lviv Polytechnic National University Publishing House [in Ukrainian].
- Official site of State Statistics Service of Ukraine (2021). http://ukrstat.gov.ua/ [in Ukrainian].
- Increasing the employment of Ukrainian women to the level of employment of men would provide 7 % GDP growth per year (2019). Center for Economic Strategy. UKMC Press https://uacrisis.org/uk/73480-how-to-encourage-ukrianian-women-to-get-employed [in Ukrainian].
- Gender-oriented socio-economic strategies to promote the empowerment of women and girls in the ECE region (2019). OON ECE/AC.28/2019/5/. https://unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/RCM_Website/ECE_AC.28_2019_5-r.pdf [in Russian].
- Women in the economy. Review of the international and Russian agenda. (2021) In: The pay gap between men and women. Department of Multilateral Economic Cooperation of the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia. https://www.economy.gov.ru/material/file/65f53dfef144f6f6b43ea8529869f52/101965562.pdf [in Russian].
- Wages in the world in 2018-2019: what lies behind the gender pay gap (2018). ILO. Geneva: MBP. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_783734.pdf [in Ukrainian].
- Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Adopted and promulgated by UN General Assembly Resolution of December 10, 1948, 217 A (III) (1948). https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_015#Text [in Ukrainian].
- Equal pay. Introductory Guide (2017). Decent Work Technical Support Team and ILO Office for Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Moskow: ILO [in Russian].
- Gender Audit Guidelines. ILO gender audit methodology based on the principle of active participation (2007). Geneva. ILO. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---europe/---ro-geneva/---sro-moscow/documents/publication/wcms_312703.pdf [in Russian].
- Gender-neutral appraisal of robotic payment (2009). Geneva. ILO. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---europe/---ro-geneva/---sro-budapest/documents/publication/wcms_168926.pdf [in Ukrainian].
- Best practices in EU countries. EU countries engage in fighting the gender pay gap on the national level (2021). https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/gender-equality/equal-pay/best-practices-eu-countries_en
- National Action Plan to implement the recommendations set out in the concluding observations of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women to the eighth periodic report of Ukraine on the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women until 2021. Approved by the order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated September 5, 2018 № 634-r. (2018). https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/634-2018-%D1%80#Text [in Ukrainian].
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Тетяна Перегудова
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.