• Oksana Khmelevska Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine image/svg+xml


educational novation, scaling up conception, scaling object, scaling subject, scaling site, scaling strategy, scaling scenario


The educational novations that have already proven their effectiveness and relevance at the level of pilot projects, programs, practices, including in other countries, are considered as one of the ways to improve the quality of education in Ukraine. It demands using the applied potential of the concept of scaling up, which allows to justify the structure and algorithm of interrelated actions at different institutional and managerial levels. The relevance of the article is determined by the fact that a scaling up in the field of education at international level is currently influenced by interdisciplinary intelligence and the rapid accumulation of empirical data in new areas of educational activities, including sustainable development. However, among domestic scientists and experts, the topic of scaling up still remains undervalued. This presupposes the expediency of generalizing the conceptual framework and institutional scaling up practices for further conceptualization of the scaling up process. The purpose of this article is to formulate a multidimensional conceptualization of scaling up of educational novations, which takes into account modern theoretical and empirical studies of scaling up in socially significant areas, as well as the logic of consistency of key components, processes and results of scaling up. The novelty of this study is characterized by the following provisions. The multidimensional conceptualization of scaling up of educational novations was further developed. It is suggested to consider novation as a scaling object, because this notion is broader than innovation and covers a wider range of educational activities, including the implementation of sustainable development principles. The necessity to introduce the English term “scaling site” into the domestic scientific circulation is grounded, which is important for understanding and interpretation of the scaling up conception. Among the results of the study it is worth noting the author’s proposed visualization of the scaling up model, which generates various interdisciplinary ideas and structures of the scaling up process from a systemic point of view and covers the key stages and cycles of scaling up. The focus is also on elements and strategies of scaling up (subjects, contexts, dimensions, resources and financial models, approaches and drivers of scaling up), adaptation scenarios (sites, levels, sectors, cycles and duration of scaling up) and object transformation scenarios (including the monitoring and evaluation). The study allows concluding that it is appropriate to use the scaling up conception in areas of educational activities, for which the effectiveness and rates of implementation of relevant novations are critical. Key words: social work, innovative practices, case management, integrated social services.


  1. Scaling up poverty reduction. Special report (2004). Development OUTREACH. World Bank Institute, 6:3. URL: pdf/263900NEWS0REP1o0A2005100101PUBLIC1.pdf
  2. Dufl o, E. (2004). Scaling Up and Evaluation. Annual Word Bank Conference on Development Economics 2004, 341-369. URL: 2136917/pdf/28101.pdf
  3. Improving Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries: From Evidence to Action (2009). David H. Peters ... [et al.] (Eds.). Th e International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Th e World Bank. Washington. https: //
  4. Guidance note. Scaling up Development Programmes (2013). UNDP. URL: https://www. localdevelopment/guidance-note--scaling-up-development-programmes.html
  5. Spark, Scale, Sustain. Innovation for the Sustainable Development Goals: 2016 Year in Review (2016). UNDP. URL: Version 24 web friendly - August 2 - Annual Report 2016 V17.pdf
  6. Beginning with the end in mind. Planning pilot projects and other programmatic research for successful scaling up (2011). WHO, ExpandNet. URL: publications/strategic_approach/9789241502320/en/
  7. Nine steps for developing a scaling-up strategy (2010). WHO. ExpandNet. URL: https:// Nine Step Guide published.pdf
  8. Practical guidance for scaling up health service innovations (2009). WHO. ExpandNet. URL:;j sessionid=763465865FC99FE0B1366249D5A1ADDD?sequence=1
  9. Scaling Up Educational Interventions in Nigeria: A Call to Action (2016). Th e Education Partnership Centre (TEP). ExpandNet. URL: 2017/05/TEPCentre-ExpandNet-Scaling-Up-WhitePaper_11Aug2016.pdf
  10. Worksheets for developing a scaling-up strategy (2012). ExpandNet-WHO. URL: https:// Worksheets - July 2012.pdf
  11. Scaling up (n.d.). FAO UN: Investment Learning Platform. URL: investment-learning-platform/themes-and-tasks/scaling-up/en/
  12. Journeys to Scale. Accompanying the Finalists of the Innovations in Education Initiative (2016). Center for Education Innovations, UNICEF. URL: https://www.educationin les/Journeys to Scale - Full Report.pdf
  13. Spira, F., & Tshiningayamwe, S. (2018). Scaling ESD. Issues and trends in Education for Sustainable Development. A. Leicht, J. Heiss, W.J. Byun (Eds.). UNESCO. URL: http://
  14. Idea to Impact: A Guide to Introduction and Scale of Global Health Innovations (2015). USAID. URL:
  15. Th e Role of Pilot Programs: Approaches to Health Systems Strengthening (2004). MD: Partners for Health Reformplus, Bethesda, Abt Associates Inc. URL: http://www.phrplus. org/Pubs/sp13.pdf
  16. Hartmann, A., & Linn, J.F. (2008). Scaling Up Th rough Aid - the Real Challenge. Th e Brookings Institution. Global Views. Policy Brief 2008-03. URL: https://www.brookings. edu/research/scaling-up-through-aid-the-real-challenge/
  17. Perlman, J., Winthrop, R., Winthrop, R., & McGivney, E. (2016). Millions Learning. Scaling Up Quality Education in Developing Countries. Brookings Institution. URL: https://www.
  18. Bradach, J. (2003). Going to Scale. Th e Challenge of Replicating Social Programs. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Spring 2003. 18-25. URL: 2003SP_feature_bradach.pdf
  19. Coburn, С.Е. (2003). Rethinking Scale: Moving Beyond Numbers to Deep and Lasting Change. Educational Researcher, August/September 2003, Vol. 32, No. 6, 3-12. URL:
  20. Dunst, C.J., Trivette, C.M., Masiello, T. & McInerney, M. (2006). Scaling Up Early Childhood Intervention Literacy Learning Practices. Center for Early Literacy Learning (CELL) papers, 1:2. URL: n2.pdf
  21. Mickelsson, M., & Danielsson, A. (2018). Scaling and Subjectifi cation in an ESD Educational Project. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, March 2018, 12(1), 28-46.
  22. Mickelsson, M., Kronlid, D.O. & Lotz-Sisitka, Н. (2019). Consider the unexpected: scaling ESD as a matter of learning. Environmental Education Research, 25:1, 135-150.
  23. Samoff , J., Molapi Sebatane, E. & Dembélé, M. (2003). Scaling Up by Focusing Down: Creating Space to Expand Education Reform. Revised for inclusion in the publication resulting from the Biennial Meeting of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa Arusha, Tanzania, 7-11 October 2001. URL:
  24. Sutoris, P. (2018). Ethically scaling up interventions in educational development: a case for collaborative multi-sited ethnographic research. Comparative Education, 54:3, 390- 410.
  25. Taylor, L., Nelson, P. & Adelman, H.S. (1999). Scaling-Up Reforms Across a School District. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 15, 303-325. URL: scaling-up reforms across a school.pdf

Author Biography

Oksana Khmelevska, Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

PhD (Economics), Leading Researcher



How to Cite

Хмелевська, О. (2021). EDUCATIONAL NOVATIONS: SCALING UP AND INSTITUTIONAL PRACTICES. Demography and Social Economy, 45(3), 114–131. Retrieved from