MIGRATION OF UKRAINIANS TO SLOVAKIA: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS
Keywords:migration of the population of Ukraine, сross-border mobility, local border traffic, migration policy, Slovak Republic
In recent years, the role of neighboring Central European countries has increased significantly among the countries where Ukrainian migrants are destined. The quarantine restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have intensified this trend, as travel to neighboring countries, including to Slovakia, proved to be safer and easier to implement. Although the volume of migration to Slovakia is much lower than that observed between Ukraine and other countries of the Visegrad Group, this is quite an illustrative example for the analysis of general migration trends in the region. It is growing rapidly due to territorial and cultural proximity, increasing the needs of the neighboring country for additional labor from abroad, the gradual liberalization of its migration policy. Citizens of Ukraine travel to Slovakia primarily for employment, educational migration to the neighboring state is increasing, and some of the relocations are of a commercial nature. The consequences of Ukrainian migration to Slovakia are ambiguous. On the one hand, it promotes closer international relations, development of cooperation, transfer of knowledge and experience, but, on the other hand, leads to the loss of Ukraine’s labor potential, reduced labor activity at home, it is associated with employment of our citizens in the informal economy abroad, risks of violating their labor rights, lack of social protection.
The purpose of this article is to analyze trends and determine the peculiarities of migration of Ukrainians to Slovakia, justifying the priorities of mutually beneficial cooperation for both countries to regulate the mobility (labor, education, trade) of the population. To achieve this, general scientific methods of cognition are used: systemic, comparative, structural-functional. The novelty of the study is provided by the identification of modern features of migration processes between Ukraine and Slovakia using the latest available statistical and factual data.
According to the results, it is concluded that both countries are interested in translating cross-border migration into the legal sphere, ensuring orderly and safe movement of people. At the same time, the main interest for Ukraine is that the active mobility of the population does not provoke further deepening of disparities in the living standards of neighboring countries, contributes to the dynamization of development. This requires action in two main areas: maintaining the model of circular migration as an alternative to permanent migration, a safeguard against the final loss of labor and intellectual potential; creating conditions for the use of migrants’ earnings, knowledge and experience gained, social ties established for business expansion, job creation in Ukraine and, accordingly, providing preconditions for reducing labor migration, repatriation of migrants.
- Database (2021). Asylum and managed migration. https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do
- Myths and facts about Ukrainian labor migration to the Visegrad countries (2019). https://europewb.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Giude-EN-fin.pdf
- Vavrova, L. (2016). Economic migration of Ukrainians to the Visegrad countries and related administrative problems. SFPA. http://borderua.sk/data/CBC01018_policy.paper.vavrova.ua.pdf [in Ukrainian].
- Stepura, T. M., & Stepura, A. L. (2018). Ukrainian-Slovak territorial migration system: to the marketing analysis of the conditions of formation and development. Marketing and logistics in the system of management, 25–27 October 2018, Lviv, 230–232. http://ena.lp.edu.ua:8080/bitstream/ntb/51544/2/2018_Stepura_T_M-Ukraino_slovatska_terytorialna_230-232.pdf [in Ukrainian].
- Analytical report on the results of the survey in the Transcarpathian region (2020). Ilko Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives foundation. https://dif.org.ua/article/analitichniy-zvitza-pidsumkami-opituvannya-v-zakarpatskiy-oblasti [in Ukrainian].
- Regions of Ukraine. Statistical collection, part 1 (2021). State Statistic Service of Ukraine. http://ukrstat.gov.ua/druk/publicat/kat_u/publ2_u.htm [in Ukraine].
- Incomes and expenditures of the population 2019 (2021). State Statistic Service of Ukraine. https://ukrstat.org/uk/druk/publicat/kat_u/2021/zb/02/d_v_reg_19.pdf [in Ukrainian].
- Аbout Slovaks living abroad (n.d.). https://svk360.com/o-slovakah-zhivushhih-zagranitsej/ [in Russian].
- Drbohlava, D., & Yaroshevich, M. (Eds.). (2017). Ukrainian migration in times of crisis: forced and labor mobility. https://www.slideshare.net/EWBUkraine/ss-81416566 [in Ukrainian].
- Chlebo, J. (2018). Reflection on Some Aspects of Slovakia’s Approach to Migration. / Patterns of international migration: Similarities and Differences. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330315589_globe_in_motion_patterns_of_international_migration_similarities_and_differences
- Statistical overview of legal and illegal migration in the Slovak Republic (2020). Prezidium of the Police Force Bureau of Border and Foreign Police. https://www.minv.sk/swift_data/source/policia/hranicna_a_cudzinecka_policia/rocenky/rok_2020/2020-rocenka-UHCP-EN.pdf
- Bachynska, M. (2020). Ukrainian migrants in the czech and slovakia republics: analysis of the economic, political, legal, social environment of the hosting countries. http://www.economy.nayka.com.ua/?op=1&z=7828 https://doi: 10.32702/2307-2105-2020.4.90 [in Ukrainian].
- Slovakia complained about Ukrainian workers coming from Poland (2018). https://www.eurointegration.com.ua/news/2018/05/11/7081543/ [in Ukrainian].
- Semchuk, K., & Kurovska, H. (2019). Sunny Transcarpathia: labor migrant’s region. https://politkrytyka.org/2019/09/03/sonyachne-zakarpattya-zarobitchanskyj- kraj/ [in Ukrainian].
- Slobodyan, O., Maradik, N., & Bench, V. (2018). Ukrainian students in Slovakia: policies of involvement, integration and motivation and plans of students. https://cedos.org.ua/uk/articles/ukrainski-studenty-u-slovachchyni-polityky-zaluchennia-intehratsii-tamotyvatsiia-i-plany-studentiv [in Ukrainian].
- Talents for Moldova: a program of mobility and career growth for ICT students and graduates between Slovakia and Moldova (2021). https://www.migrationpartnershipfacility.eu/what-we-do/actions-pilot-projects/talents-for-moldova-mobility-and-careeradvancement-programme- for-ict-students-and-graduates-between-slovakia-andmoldova [in Russian].
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Олена Малиновська
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.