REMITTANCES IN UKRAINE DURING THE FULL-SCALE WAR
Keywords:remittances, private transfers, international migration, forced migration, Ukraine, transfer behavior, counter-cyclicality of transfers, migrants’ well-being
The article is dedicated to the study of the issues related to private money transfers to Ukraine from abroad and in the reverse direction after the onset of a full-scale invasion. The relevance of the research is explained by the dramatic changes in migration behavior of the Ukrainian population as a result of the full-scale attack by the aggressor country and the significant increase in population outflow beyond the country’s borders. As a result, it is necessary to identify the changes in the volumes and patterns of private transfers since these financial flows have been a source of well-being for their recipients and have significantly stimulated the development of the national economy. The aim of the article is to investigate money transfers to Ukraine from abroad and in the reverse direction after the full-scale invasion by the aggressor country. Methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, and selective observation were used. The novelty of the research lies in determining the significance of money transfers from Ukrainians during the full-scale war, identifying the resource potential of forced and voluntary migrants for conducting private transfers to Ukraine, and highlighting the theme of outbound financial flows from Ukraine. A full-scale war has led to a noticeable decrease in the overall volume of remittances to Ukraine. This has primarily occurred due to a reduction in the coverage area of data collection, as the aggressor occupied additional territories, and also due to possible changes in the remitters’ transfer behavior. Research has revealed a rapid decrease in the cost of conducting remittances to Ukraine following the onset of the full-scale invasion. Based on empirical data regarding the well-being of forced Ukrainian migrants abroad who left the country after the full-scale invasion, their potential for conducting private transfers to Ukraine is assessed as low. Migrants who left the country before the invasion have more opportunities for making transfers to Ukraine. The research has documented the widespread active use of funds accumulated in Ukraine abroad. This includes personal savings, pensions, and other types of payments, as well as infrequent remittances sent to forced migrants in their host countries.
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