• Borys Krimer Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine



family policy, childcare, big cities, fertility, Ukraine


Finding a balance between employment and family life today is a significant challenge for families with children and, therefore, one of the main issues of family policy, especially relevant for big cities. The availability of quality childcare, especially for children under three years of age, is crucial for parents’ participation in the labor market, reduces the risk of poverty for families with children and has a positive impact on fertility.

This work is based on the idea of the special importance of social services for childcare in modern cities (especially, big cities) in the context of similar fertility trends in urban areas of Ukraine and other European countries. The purpose of this publication is to analyze social services for childcare in developed countries and Ukraine, identify major development problems and find ways to improve family policy in Ukraine at the level of big cities by studying the development of preschools in other countries and cities.

The coverage of children with preschool education and care in Ukraine is significantly lower than in most European countries, especially for children under two years of age, where there is no noticeable growth trend. In big cities of Ukraine, against the background of relatively low coverage, the problem of overloaded preschools remains acute. The current problems, especially acute in big cities, are the low level of services, inconvenience for parents and low staff salaries.

Useful experiences of family policy development in big cities of developed countries include: assistance in increasing the number of available places in preschools and childcare facilities (in particular, for children under three years of age), targeted financial support or reducing the tax burden for families with children using childcare services, wider support for vulnerable groups of families with children, development of individual childcare. It is important to implement complex family policy that combines the development of preschools with other tools to provide material support and promote employment for parents, as well as to promote practical gender equality and overcome the “double burden” for working mothers.


  1. Neyer, G. (2003). Family Policies and Low Fertility in Western Europe. Journal of Population and Social Security, 1, 46-93.
  2. Sobotka, Т., Matysiak, A., & Brzozowska, Z. (2019). Policy responses to low fertility: how effective are they? UNFPA Working Paper, 1.
  3. Thévenon, O. (2011). Family policies in OECD countries: a cоmparative analysis. Population and Development Review, 9.
  4. Neuberger, F., Rüttenauer, T., & Bujard, M. (2022). Where does public childcare boost female labor force participation? Exploring geographical heterogeneity across Germany 2007–2017. Demographic Research, 46, 693-722. https:// doi: 10.4054/DemRes.2022.46.24
  5. Deiters, M., Neyer, G., & Andersson, G. (2019). Policy Receptiveness as Determinant of Policy Effectiveness: German childcare and women’s transition to first birth. Department of Sociology Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, 22.
  6. Krimer, B. O. (2021). Family Policy in Big Cities in Terms of Demographic Transition. Demography and Social Economy, 1 (43), 19-37.
  7. [in Ukrainian].
  8. OECD Family Database (2022).
  9. Statistical Publication «Pre-school education» (2021). SSC of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  10. How to increase female labor force participation and why is it important for the economy? (2020). Centre for Economic Strategy. [in Ukrainian].
  11. Dutchak, O., Tkalich, A., & Strelnyk, O. (2020). Who cares? Kindergartens in the context of gender inequality. Center for Social and Labor Research. 96 p. [in Ukrainian].
  12. Ratings of Ukrainian cities: the seventh municipal poll (2021). Sociological group Rating. [in Ukrainian].
  13. How does better access to kindergartens help mothers in labor markets? (2020). Centre for Economic Strategy. [in Ukrainian].
  14. Schubert, H.-A. (2020). Encouraging Mothers The effect of German regional childcare policies on maternal employment between 2006 and 2018. Stockholm report in demography. German_regional_childcare_policies_on_maternal_employment_between_2006_and_2018/12833744
  15. Fighting child poverty in European cities Lessons from cities for the EU Child Guarantee (2021). Eurosities.
  16. Gender roles and stereotypes. Survey results (2021). Sociological group Rating. [in Ukrainian].

Author Biography

Borys Krimer, Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

PhD (Economics), Senior Researcher



How to Cite

Крімер, Б. (2022). CHILDCARE FACILITIES AS A COMPONENT OF FAMILY POLICY IN A BIG CITIES. Demography and Social Economy, 48(2), 78–94.



Socio-economic development